英语语法

2012年09月12日 2167 zhibs

【英语语法】被动语态的几种特殊用法

【英语语法】被动语态的几种特殊用法,珠海IBS英语学校编辑和大家分享被动语态的几种特殊用法,请阅读下文。

英语语法被动语态的几种特殊用法,珠海IBS英语学校编辑和大家分享被动语态的几种特殊用法,请阅读下文。


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      1. 被动语态的不同时态被动语态由"be +过去分词"构成,其中的助动词be 根据情况可使用各种不同时态。如:


      She is respected by everyone.她受到大家的尊重。(一般现在时)


      The book will be reprinted soon.这本书很快会重印。(一般将来时)


      The road is being repaired.路正在修整。(现在进行吋)


      They have been given a warning.他们受到警告。(现在完成时间)


      2. 带情态动词的被动语态该结构的基本形式为"情态动词+be(或be的适当形式)+过去分词"。这类结构非常有可能作为语境题出现在考卷中。如:


      The rules must be obeyed.这些规章制度必须遵守。


      They shouldn't have been told about it.


      这事是不应当告诉他们的。


      3.非谓语动词的被动语态


      (1)不定式一般式的被动语态。由"to be +过去分词"构成She asked to be given some work to do.如:


      She asked to be given some work to do。

      她要求给她一些工作做。


      He was the last person to be asked to speak.

      他是最后被邀请发言的人。


      (2)不定式完成式的被动语态。由"to have been +过去分词"构成。如:


      I should like to have been told the result earlier.

      我本想让人把结果早点告诉我的。


      (3)现在分词一般式的被动语态。由"being +过去分词"抅成。如:


      I saw him being taken away.我看见有人把他带走了 。


      Being protected by a wall' he felt quite safe. 有墙作保护,他感到很安全。


      (4)现在分词完成式的被动语态。由"having been +过去分词"构成。Having been invited to speak ,I'll start making preparations tomorrow.

      因为邀请我去讲话,我明天就得做准备。


      The subject having been opened ,he had to go on with it.

      话题已经开始了,她不得不谈下去。


      (5)动名词一般式的被动语态。由"being +过去分词"构成。如: She likes being looked at.她喜欢被人瞧。


      He hates being made a fool of.他讨厌被別人愚弄。


      This question is far from being settled.这个问题远没解決。


      (6)动名词完成式的被动语态。由"having been +过去分词"抅成。如: Jenny 's not having been trained as a dancer is her one regret.

      杰妮没受过舞蹈的专业训练是她感到遗憾的事。


      After having been instructed to drive out of town, I began to acquire confidence. 在接到把车开出城的指令后,我开始信心十足了。


      The door remained locked.门仍然锁着。


      【注】过去分词没有被动式,因为它本身可以表示被动意义。如:


      The door remained locked.门仍然锁着。


      4. "get +过去分词"构成的被动语态英语被动语态通常由"助动词be +过去分词"抅成,有时也可由"get +过去分词"抅成。如:


      James got beaten last night.麿姆斯咋晚被打了 。


      How did that window get opened?那个窗户是如何打开的?


       但总的说来,用get构成的被动语态不如用be构成的被动语态常见,尤其是在含有施动者的by短语吋,用get构成被动语态更是少见。不过有时用be +过去分词构成被动语态造成误解时,人们可能会选get +过去分词来避免这种误解:


      The window was broken.窗户破了。(表状态)


      The window got broken.窗户被打破了。(表动作)


      5.两类型被动句型的相互转换  英语中有一种主动句可以转换成两种被动句型,它们通常是一些表示客观说明的句子。如:


      People believed that she is honest.大家相信她是诚实的。


      It 's believed that she is honest.大家相信她是诚实的。


      She is believed to be honest.大家相信她是诚实的。


      比较上面两类被动句型可以发现,一类是"it + be +过去分词+ that从句",另一类则是"主语+ be +过去分词+不定式"(其中的"主语"为前一类句型中that从句中的主语),通常可用于这两类被动句型的动词有assume, believe, expect, fear, feel, know, presume, report, say, suppose, think, understand等。比较(同时注意其中时态和动词形式的变化):


      It ' s known that he was a good singer. / He is known to have been a good singer.

      大家知道他曾是位优秀的歌手。


      It 's reported that he was driving fast. / He is reported to have been driving fast.

      据说他当时车开得很快。


相关阅读:

什么是被动语态

什么是现在进行时

一般过去时的用法

一般现在时的用法


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